Terminology

In my work, I use the terms ‘gendered cyberhate’, ‘gendered e-bile’, and – following the United Nations (UN) Broadband Commission – ‘cyber violence against women and girls’ (‘cyber VAWG’) to capture an array of discourses and practices which have historically been designated via terms such as ‘cyberbullying’, ‘cyberstalking’, ‘trolling’, and ‘flaming’, and which occur at the gender-technology-violence nexus (Jane, 2014a; 2014b; 2015). These discourses and acts include: sexually violent invective; plausible rape and death threats; stalking; large groups attacking individuals; the malicious circulation of targets’ personal details online (also known as ‘doxing’); and the uploading of sexually explicit material without the consent of the pictured subject (also known as ‘revenge porn’). I use the more colloquial expression Rapeglish to capture the tenor of sexual violence accenting much of the relevant discourse. My approach to terminology is intended to recognise the complexity and interrelated nature of the acts under analysis, and also to acknowledge the fluidity and changing nature of these practices and the technologies on which they rely. I note, too, that recent scholarly interest in misogyny online has led to the emergence of a range of other expressions used to refer to gendered hostil­ity, harassment, and abuse in relation to technology. Examples include ‘technology violence’ (Ostini and Hopkins, 2015), ‘technology-facilitated sexual violence’ (Henry and Powell, 2015), and ‘gendertrolling’ (Mantilla, 2015).

– Emma A. Jane